Frequently Asked Questions

What is interventional radiology?

 Interventional radiology is a sub-speciality in medicine where trained physicians can treat several diseases by taking fine tubes or catheters under image guidance through tubular structures in the body especially the blood vessels to treat several variety of diseases it could mean of blocking an abnormal cluster of vessels or opening a blocked vessel.

What is subarachnoid hemorrhage?

The brain is covered by a thin layer of fluid which lies within the subarachnoid space. When blood leaks into this space the patient suffers headache of an intensity which can only be described as thunderclap. The commonest cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. This is a dangerous condition , left untreated the aneurysm can rupture again which can be fatal.

What is an aneurysm?

Aneurysms are abnormal bulges in a blood vessel. These bulges develop because the vessel in this area is weak. Aneurysms are prone to rupture. When they rupture they produce the condition called subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]. An aneurysm in the brain which is more than 5 mm has to be treated. Any aneurysm that has ruptured also requires immediate treatment. Aneurysms can also develop in any major blood vessels of the body and when diagnosed require treatment which would depend upon the size and location.

What are the ways to treat ruptured intracranial aneurysms?

The two main ways to treat aneurysms is by an open surgery there clip is placed across the junction between the aneurysm and the main artery and the second choice is by an extremely minimally invasive procedure called endovascular coiling.

What is an aortic aneurysm?

The aorta the largest blood vessel in the body it carries blood from the heart to different parts of the human body. As we age the blood vessel can get weak. The weak area can bulge out forming an aneurysm if the size of this aneurysm touches 5 cm then the chances of it leaking become significant.

What are treatment options for aortic aneurysms?

Until a few years ago the only treatment option that was available for aortic aneurysms was a major surgery. Today interventional radiology offers a minimally invasive procedure where a tubular mesh which has cloth like covering incorporated into it is placed across the aneurysm by a small nick in the skin in the blood vessel of the leg. This form of treatment is called endovascular therapy by stent-graft.

What is peripheral vascular disease?

As we grow old the blood vessels in a body tend to degenerate by the deposition of fibrous and fatty tissue. This condition is called atherosclerosis. It results in narrowing of blood vessels. When this happens to a blood vessel in the heart we can get a heart attack. When it happens to the blood vessels supplying the upper and lower limbs we experience pain when we use this limb. Left alone this can progress to discoloration of the limb, ulceration and gangrene. Atherosclerosis involving the blood vessels of the limb is commonly called peripheral vascular disease.

What is angioplasty and stenting?

Angioplasty the technique of opening blocked or narrowed blood vessels in the body using balloon catheters. It is done under local anesthesia in a specialized theatre the angiographic suite. The balloon is taken through a small nick made in the blood vessel in the thigh or arm. If the blood vessel doesn’t respond adequately to balloon dilatation then a metal mesh is deployed across the diseased segment this mesh supports the diseased vessel allowing blood to flow normally again. This procedure is called angioplasty and stenting.

What is embolization?

Embolization of the technique of deliberately blocking a blood vessel to produced a therapeutic result. It is performed by delivering an agent that can block a blood vessel through a small tube that is inserted into a blood vessel off the body under image guidance. It is useful in the management of active bleeding, to reduce the blood supply to tumor before surgery, in the treatment of fibroids of the uterus, treatment of abnormal clusters of blood vessels called vascular malformations and combined with cancer drugs can be used in certain malignancies.

What is DVT?

DVT stands for deep venous thrombosis. The veins of the leg are subdivided into the deep and the superficial system. Sometimes the blood within the deep venous system becomes solid [clots]. This can happen due to an underlying problem of blood clotting. It can also be seen if the patient keeps a limb in a fixed position for a long time like during the transatlantic flight or when you are lying in bed after a major surgery. The major complications of DVT are mainly post thrombotic syndrome which presents as swelling and ulceration of the leg secondary to the inability of the blood to flow through the blocked deep venous system. The second complication is pulmonary embolism when a blood clot fragments from the thrombosed vessel and migrates into the lungs.

How can we treat DVT?

The best way to treat DVT is to prevent it by walking intermittently then traveling in an aircraft or by taking low molecular weight heparin specially if the patient is bed ridden. If the patient develops extensive DVT been the best treatment would be to dissolve the blood clot by inserting a catheter into the clot and injecting a medicine into it. If the patient has extensive DVT the patient did require an umbrellalike device which filters the blood, it is placed in the inferior vena cava to prevent blood clots from traveling to the lungs this is one of the ways one can prevent pulmonary embolism.

What are arteriovenous malformations?

Arteriovenous malformations or AVMs are abnormal clusters of blood vessels when the artery and veins are connected together without the intervening capillary bed. This can be seen in any part of the body but can be very dangerous when it is in the brain where it is prone to bleed which can lead to death. There are several treatment options for AVMs from surgery to minimally invasive interventional radiology techniques. AVMs in the upper and lower limbs when small go undetected however when they are large produce significant deformities and disfigurement.

What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins are abnormally dilated veins which are seen and the lower limb they can be because of aging, standing for long periods of time, or due to impaired blood flow through the deep venous system.

What of the difference between LASER and RF ablation for varicose veins?

Both are extremely minimally options for treating varicose veins where a small nick was made in the vein close to the knee and a small tube is is inserted under ultrasound guidance basically to destroy the abnormally dilated vein. Laser uses a LASER fiber and energy to destroy the vein on the other hand radiofrequency is used to destroy the vessel during RF ablation. Both produced produce equally good results however literature claims that RF ablation produces less pain following the procedure.

What is osteoporosis?

As we grow old the bones of a body get thin and weak due to lack of calcium deposit in them this is primarily because of the lack of hormone called estrogen which is normally seen in women before menopause. This can lead to fracture of the bones specially of the thigh and the spinal column. Fracture of the spinal bones can be extremely painful.

What other treatment options for vertebral body fractures?

The best treatment option today is vertebroplasty where a needle is inserted under image guidance into the fractured vertebral body and bone cement injected into the diseased bones which in turn stabilizes the fractured fragments and significantly reduces the pain. And are going to only winging the study and she and anemia fever kidneys take some lymphoma cyst is Dr. deliberately to the kidneys that are itself because of birth day and she wanted some stuff Sorrel to his based K. into I. is a very focal so allergies at this largest by the closed in the urinary only 30 at this time no experienced and dated by

What is TIA?

TIA stands for transient ischemic attacks. It basically means paralysis for a short duration of time usually less than 5 minutes. It is generally caused by a small blood clot traveling from a diseased and narrow segment of a major blood vessels supplying the brain like the carotid or the vertebral artery. It is ideally treated by carotid angioplasty and stenting or carotid endarterectomy.

How is carotid angioplasty and stenting performed?

Degenerative angioplasty and stenting is a minimally invasive procedure is a small wire was passed through a puncture in a blood vessel in the thigh and taken across the block the narrowed segment is then treated by placing a metal mesh across the region. This can sometimes result in stroke and so medical filter was placed in the blood vessel above the narrow segment prior to the treatment which traps the smaller fragments and blood clots that can go up into the brain during the procedure. Carotid angioplasty and stenting with filter protection is considered as safe as surgery in the management of carotid stenosis.

What is chemoembolization?

Chemoembolization as a technique of using a combination of an anti- cancer drugs and blocking agents to treat cancers specially in the liver. Often this is only way one can treat cancer when is detected. Today the availability radioactive beads have further improved the survival rates in this group of patients.

What is UFE?

UFE stands for uterine fibroid embolization it is a minimally invasive technique for treating symptomatic fibroids of the uterus.